A corn (heloma) is an area of thickened skin tissue on the foot or on top of the toes usually caused due to irritation and friction from a bony prominence. Corns become inflamed due to constant friction with shoes. Corns are caused when pressure points against the skin are created by abnormal friction (instability or over-pronation) occurring between a bony prominence and the soft tissue between the toes. Over-pronation causes hypermobility of the foot which can cause the skin to get trapped between bony areas of the foot and the footwear. If not checked for a long time, this can lead to the skin thickening itself for protection against irritation and that’s how the corn develops. Corns can press on a nerve below and cause pain.
A callus is an area of thickened skin tissue on the bottom of the foot due to irritation and friction, typically under bony prominences. The patient feels pain in the area of the callus, especially when there’s direct pressure. The integrity of the protective barrier the skin provides the foot is critical in maintaining weight bearing function. Callus formation occurs in areas of high vertical and shear loads and defends against blistering and ulceration. However, this process itself can cause symptoms and predispose patients with poly-neuropathy to deep infection. Even when considering a ‘healthy’ foot, poor foot function can lead to callus formation. During over-pronation, the foot rolls across the metatarsal heads – one at a time – instead of distributing the weight equally. This happens because the foot is a “loose bag of bones” during pronation causing hypermobility of soft tissues. When the “loose bag of bones” phase goes on too long and the skin is trapped between the bones in the foot and the ground, the friction of individual metatarsal heads bearing all the weight can cause inflammation. The skin thickens in the inflamed area to protect the sore spot. This thick build up of skin so close to the nerve endings in the bottom of the foot is what causes the pain. This callus formation is our body’s defense mechanism to protect the foot against excessive pressure and friction. Calluses are normally found on the ball-of-the-foot, the heel, and/or the inside of the big toe.
Podiapro’s solutions help in cases of corns and calluses by offloading pressure from the affected region and redistributing it across the rest of the foot. With the pressure reduced, the area of the foot affected with a corn or a callus gets a chance to heal. Sometimes it may be necessary to surgically remove a corn. Wearing insoles is imperative post surgery to keep the area free from pressure and prevent a recurrence of the corn or callus formation. Podiapro uses medical grade poron to redistribute weight pressure and reduce friction for patients of corns and calluses.